BOOKS - New Books

My Mama Marie
By Joan Errea

My Mama Marie is the loving, funny, moving, heartwarming, and sometimes heartbreaking story of Marie Jeanne Paris neé Goyhenetche. Marie Jeanne, raised in the Pyrenees village of Banca, came first to the lonely little town of Currie, Nevada. There she met Arnaud Paris, the author’s beloved Aita. Continuously faced with challenges, she not only persevered, but excelled in raising a family and building a life on the frontier. It is also the story of the author’s own childhood on ranches, in one-room schoolhouses, and at sheep camps. Includes a selection of Marie’s—a classically trained chef in the Basque Country and veteran of years of sheep camp cooking—recipes.

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A Basque Patriot in New York: Jose Luis de la Lombana y Foncea and the Euskadi Delegation in the United States
By Iñaki Anasagasti and Josu Erkoreka

A Basque Patriot in New York traces the incredible journey of a young jelkide (Basque Nationalist Party activist and patriot) from Vitoria-Gasteiz. Born to a nationalist family in the Araban capital, and a staunch nationalist from a very young age, the book follows Jose Luis de la Lombana through education in Madrid, resistance and incarceration in Vitoria-Gasteiz at the time of the military coup that turned into the Civil War of 1936, escape to France, activism in Barcelona—where he served as the editor of the Basque nationalist daily Euzkadi—in support of the Basque government-in-exile, and then exile. Among others, Lombana was chosen to attend the Second World Youth Congress, held in New York in 1938. During his time of activism in the United States, Lombana made many observations about US society and about Basque nationalism and its conflicts and struggles to reach and make inroads into US and US Basque and Basque-Catholic communities, which make his testimony and story an indispensable read for understanding of this extraordinarily complex and tumultuous period both in the United States and around the world. The book also focuses on efforts to support the Basque government in France and the United States and the subject of propaganda both in favor of Basque nationalism and pro-Franco, especially with regards to the US and world Catholic Communities. Altogether, through the story of this jelkide, a vivid portrait is painted of a time of great crisis, and of extraordinary deeds by many heretofore ordinary people. In the Appendix, the book presents Lombana’s own report on his time in the United States.

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Robert Laxalt: Story of a Storyteller
By Warren Lerude

“Robert Laxalt was as understated as he was brilliant as a novelist and Basque-American citizen. Warren Lerude’s superb new study illuminates the life and artistry of Laxalt. Anyone who wants to understand the pastoral tradition of the American West needs to read the works of Robert Laxalt.” —National Humanities Scholar Clay Jenkinson

“There’s no one better suited to tell the story of a great storyteller than someone who fits that description himself. Warren Lerude has given us a remarkable chronicle of the life of Nevada legend Robert Laxalt. It is a book that is thoroughly researched, crisply written and honest to a fault. This is a biography about a man, Bob Laxalt, who richly deserves one. It will surely stand the test of time.” —Joe Crowley, President Emeritus, University of Nevada, Reno

Robert Laxalt’s “evocative writing, full of the rush of memory and polished to simplicity . . . set a solid example for the rest of us.” —Lou Cannon, The Washington Post

“Robert Laxalt was a western author who nurtured the Western literary and journalistic community. . . . He was a consummate story teller, and his work remains universal in its themes and enduring in its subtle power.”—Alan Deutschman, biographer of Steve Jobs

“As a first generation American and trained journalist, [in Sweet Promised Land] Robert Laxalt has captured . . . the development of our country with such high literary merit that his book deserves universal regard as a classic of Americana.” —Guy Shipler Jr., The New York Times

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Current Research, no. 10
Sustainable Development, Ecological Complexity, and Environmental Values

Edited by Ignacio Ayestarán and Miren Onaindia

Sustainable Development, Ecological Complexity, and Environmental Values contributes to expanding the idea of sustainability by integrating different thematic issues related to sustainable development in its threefold consideration (economic, social, and environmental) with regard to the case of the Basque Country. On the global scale, changes have clearly accelerated; ecological and social sustainability are two facets of the same changing reality. First, social sustainability depends on ecological sustainability. If we continue degrading nature’s capacity to produce the ecosystems’ services (water filtration, climate stabilization, etc.) and resources (food, materials), both individuals and nations will be affected by growing pressures and increasing conflicts, as well as by threats to public health and personal safety. Second, ecological sustainability depends on social sustainability, a socially unjust and unfair system with an ever-increasing population that is not able to have its needs met will necessarily lead to environmental collapse. In addition, human behavior and the social dynamic often lie at the heart of social and ecological problems. It must be, therefore, assumed that there will not be sustainable development if sustainable societies do not first exist. A sustainable society has the challenge of developing human capital. In this book, these global questions are treated as they relate to specific place and context, the Basque Country and its modern institutions.
Linguae Vasconum Primitiae: The First Fruits of the Basque Language, 1545, Bernard Etxepare


So ends Bernard Etxepare's Linguae Vasconum Primitiae, likely the first book ever printed in the Basque language, in the year of 1545. Published in Bordeaux, the book contains a modest collection of poems, some religious, others love poetry, one autobiographical, and two extolling the virtues of Basque and its worthiness through publication to be included with the other languages of the world. Written in the Lower Navarrese dialect of Basque, the poems have found enduring fame among the Basques for their celebration of the Basque language. Included alongside the seminal translation by Mikel Morris Pagoeta is a comparative rendition of the original Basque. The book also includes a foreword by Pello Salaburu, the preface to the 1995 edition by Patxi Altuna, and an introduction by Beñat Oyharçabal.

Other people thought
it could not be written;
now they have seen
that they were wrong.
come forth into the world!
Basque Pelota: A Ritual, an Aesthetic, By Olatz González Abrisketa

"Learn, children / To speak Basque, / Play pelota, / And dance correctly." -- Basque popular song

"This vibrant and communitarian game had to wait for Olatz Gonzalez Abrisketa for a much needed ethnography that would reveal its social and symbolic dimensions."-- Joseba Zulaika

The game of pelota is, as Wilhelm von Humboldt described it, "the principal festival of the Basques," and is, for Pío Baroja, "the Basque game par excellence." Indeed, as Olatz González Abrisketa aptly demonstrates in Basque Pelota: A Ritual, an Aesthetic, pelota is one of the most revealing frameworks of meaning and understanding of the Basque imaginary. By digging into the historic, symbolic, and even mythological roots of the sport, and by describing interconnected webs of meaning in the various domains of social, juridical, bodily, and imaginative experience, she shows how pelota constitutes a ritualized action that both stages and repairs social antagonisms by offering a "deep play" that prevents violent conflict and implies a paramount cultural transformation for the Basuqes. Furthermore, she shows that the joko or "argon" of pelota has a foundational rose in culture; the metaphoric extensions of "hand," "pelota," and "body"; and how the fronton or plaza is the Basque public space par excellence and a monument to the community's memory.
Basque Literary History, Edited by Mari Jose Olaziergi

Basque Literary History provides an overview of the evolution of Basque literature, the sociohistorical events that marked it, and the place it holds within Basque society from its oral roots and its "inception" in 1545 with Linguae Vasconum Primitiae by Bernard Etxepare (the first book printed in Basque) to the modern day. It studies "Basque literary history" from the understanding of Basque literature as part of a system-a literary system- to which it belongs and from which it receives meaning and direction. Like all languages and literatures, Basque literature has been conditioned by the relationship between language and literature. In the Basque case this is exacerbated by the subordination of Basque literature to the historical situation. Until the end of the twentieth century, to write Basque literature meant mostly to cultivate the Basque language to the extent that authors would inscribe in their works a defense of the language to prove its versatility and compare it to other, more literary-cultivated languages. In this context, a core aspect of Basque literary history's purpose is the wish to establish literature's autonomy in the context of social and cultural life. Authors, when they create literary universes, no longer feel like mere apologists of a minority language that is peripheral amidst the din of Western European literatures. These authors write in a minorized language, but one that is coming of age and hopes to function as an autonomous system in the context of Basque society and aims to get its voice heard in the World Republic of Letters.
William A. Douglass: Mr. Basque, By Mikel Elustondo

For Basques around the world, Mr. Basque is the public face of the University of Nevada, Reno's Basque Studies Program, which a president of the Basque Country described as a "candle in the night" for the Basques during the long years of the Franco dictatorship; for the Basques of the American West (and indeed the Americas) he is the author who brought their experience to the light of day in his acclaimed book Amerikanuak: Basques in the New World; for Nevadans he is a lifelong resident, a shrewd casino operator, and a member of a true Nevada pioneering family; and for his fellow anglers and sportsmen he is a steady companion on adventures around the world. Through these pages, the result of more than ten years of interviews between the author, Miel Elustondo, and William A. Douglass, "Bill," the reader experiences a candid and vivid portrait of life spent in constant motion: searching for lizards in the high desert as a boy, starting a family on a shoestring, establishing a reputation in academia, participating in brokering the end of violence in the Basque Country, and much, much more...
Our Wars: Short Fiction on Basque Conflicts, Edited by Mikel Ayerbe Sudupe

Our Wars brings together a wide-ranging collection of stories on the endemic violence that plagued the Basque Country from the eruption of civil war in Spain in 1936 until the definitive ceasefire of ETA in 2011. The voices that emerge are multifaceted: an effeminateAmericano innkeeper who must make surprising changes in order to survive and escape the violence that has engulfed his repatriated homeland, a man fleeing the police who finds himself in a surprising book club, a father worried about his daughter's loss of identity, parents anxiously awaiting and dreading a phone call, an estranged wife's paranoia when her husband pops up on the news, and much, much more. The themes of story-telling, transformation, and memory resonate with the power of lived experience. Selected and with an incisive explanatory introduction by Mikel Ayerbe Sudupe, these stories are "about" Basque violence, but are also much more...
Oui Oui Oui of the Pyrennes, By Mary Jean Etcheberry-Morton
Children's Book

Five-year-old Maite Echeto and her mother are Basques who live in the Basque Country of France while they are waiting to join Maite's father, who is making his fortune in the American West. Visiting their farmer cousins on a cold Easter day, Maite meets Oui Oui Oui, a quite remarkable little goslin, the only good egg out of fourteen. With the advice of good Farmer August and wise Justine, and the help of her mother, Maite adopts the goslin. Together, they embark on a series of adventures, filled with colorful Basques and others, that changes both their lives forever.
The Challenge of a Bilingual Society in the Basque Country
Edited by Pello Salaburu and Xabier Alberdi Current Research No. 9

Of the non-Indo-European languages that survive in Europe, only one of these is in the western half of the continent—Euskara (the Basque language). It is, according to every study and despite the fact that the oldest testimonies in Euskara are only two thousand years old, a language that was used in the region prior to the invasions of Indo-European peoples with other cultures and other languages six thousand years ago. The Basque language, spoken by half a million people, is not related to any other language in the world. While it has constantly been challenged by its upstart linguistic neighbors, most notably French and Spanish, this language has survived through centuries. However, it has only been quite recently—and only in one part of the Basque Country—that Basque has received the stable recognition of being a coofficial language recognized by the public administration. In the space of a few years, Euskara went from being a language spoken mostly in rural areas to being used in the media, at university, and in the offices of the Basque government. In short, it became a “visible” language in a modern society. In the current work we present some of the features that characterize this modern bilingual society and investigate this new situation in Basque history: a history that, for good or bad, is still being written by its protagonists—the inhabitants of the Basque Country, something that is quite unusual in the history of languages.
The Making of the Basque Question: Experiencing Self-Government, 1793-1877
By Joseba Agirreazkuenaga

The Making of the Basque Question contextualizes Basque political and parliamentary development in the period of Spanish nation-state building, during the transoceanic monarchy of the Spains, in the nineteenth century. This involved a particular transition and marked the emergence of the “foral question,” becoming the “Basque question” as it was named in parliamentary terms and public debate from 1839–a political, legal, and administrative issue of whether or not the Basque Country was entitled in law to self-government.

“In Spain the question of the Basques is much more serious than in France…When the different criteria for the theory of nationalities are combined here, one would have to be in favor of the independence for the Basques. Will Spain consent to this?” Francisco Pi I Margall, Las nacionalidades (1877)

This book is based also on the research of its actors personal experiences and testimonies. Through the experience of individual actors, this important period in the development of the Basque identity is explored.
Behavior and Organizational Change
Edited by Sabino Ayestarán and Jon Barrutia Goenaga

Advanced societies produce open and internationalized economies where competitiveness is a necessary requirement, although this in itself is not enough to guarantee sustained success. Social, political, and cultural complexities, along with increasingly greater social and collective needs, are another feature of the environment in question. Given this environment, companies and organizations in general have to maintain a high level of strategic tension and a significant capacity to adapt and be flexible when faced with different contingencies. Organizations must be driven by people who are committed to its goals, who actively participate in the management of labor processes, who have creative skills, and who are capable of getting along well with others and working as part of a team. Likewise, leaders must lean toward transformational or shared leadership, in which both the management and workers assume responsibility for growth. Cooperation between workers and managers is based on the experience that insofar as the company’s goals are achieved, so will those of each individual person. To appreciate the change, it is important to understand organizational behavior, as there can be no sustainable organizational change without a change in people’s behavior.
Living Boundaries: Frontiers and Identity in the Basque Country
By Zoe Bray

In Living Boundaries, Zoe Bray studies the construction of identity in Bidasoa-Txingudi, a small region in the Basque Country straddling the international frontier between France and Spain and comprised of the towns of Hendaia, Irun and Hondarribia. Taking as a focal point a cross-frontier cooperation project designed to transcend national, cultural, social and political differences in a context of disappearing frontiers and attempts to promote European integration, the book analyzes the way politicians draw on ‘culture’ and ‘identity’ for popular legitimacy and the obstacles that impeded the development of a sense of common togetherness. Following the tradition of social anthropological research, the book is laced with rich ethnographic accounts tied to contemporary socio-political issues. It challenges ideas of fixed identity among people who belong to apparently homogenous groups and suggests rethinking the concept of identity in terms of a configuration of boundaries that are constantly drawn, crossed and reinterpreted in the course of everyday social interaction. For this new edition, the author presents a new preface and afterword discussing the evolution of the area and of the research project since the book’s original publication in 2004, and leading to the conclusion that as old boundaries disappear, human beings erect new ones, providing a rich and changing landscape of identities in this singular region.
Selected Essays of Julio Caro Baroja
Compiled and with an Introduction by Jesús Azcona

The Selected Essays of Julio Caro Baroja gathers together some of the author’s finest writing on a wide variety of topics relevant to the Basque Country and the lives of Basques throughout history. Gathered and introduced by Jesús Azcona, these essays provide a broad sketch of Caro Baroja’s extraordinary career spanning almost the entire turbulent twentieth century. In Caro Baroja’s view the material world of technology and its applications and the spiritual world of social and cultural life are inextricably intertwined. Among the topics covered in these essays are the historical-cultural context of the Basque Country in relation to its neighbors; Basque history; cultural cycles and identity; Basque-Iberianism; the Basque language, its lexicon, and its dialects; the “traditional” Basque economy, and agriculture and cattle raising; the structure and functions of the Basque house; Basque shipbuilding and ironworking; the Basque relationship with the sea; the feeling of belonging in the Basque Diaspora; and the Basques yesterday and today.
Buffalotarrak: An Anthology of the Basques of Buffalo, Wyoming
Edited by Dollie Iberlin and David Romtvedt

Throughout the twentieth century many Basques arrived in the small town of Buffalo, Wyoming, making it a hub of Basque culture for the whole state. This book, originally published for the NABO festival of 1995, collects essays by Basques and others with an interest in the town's people, lives, and customs. With mainly personal voices the Buffalo Basques - or Buffalotarrak - are brought to life, and in doing so shed a great deal of light not only on the Buffalotarrak, but on the experience of Basques in the American West.
Basque Cooperativism
Edited by Baleren Bakaikoa and Eneka Albizu

Cooperative companies form part of the social economy-a third economic sector beyond the private and public spheres that embraces community, voluntary, and nonprofit activities. While corporations distribute their surpluses in relation to the capital contributions of shareholders, cooperatives do so according to activity of their members; in short, in a cooperative, capital is subordinate to work. The cooperative spirit has been an important feature of Basque society, from the traditional auzolan (literally, "neighborhood work") to the development of major cooperative companies like Alfa, Fagor, and ultimately Mondragon, the largest cooperative in the world and a major supplier of products and services nationally and internationally. This book focuses on the changes and challenges faced by the social economy in general and Basque cooperatives in particular in light of the crisis of the welfare state, the growth of neoliberal doctrines and greater privatization, and most recently of all, the global financial crisis. The book is divided into three parts: Part 1 analyzes the origins, values, and culture of Basque cooperativism. Part 2 focuses on innovation in and the management system of Basque cooperatives as a source of competitive advantage vis-a-vis traditional corporations. Finally, part 3 addresses the response of Basque cooperatives to globalization in general and the current global financial crisis in particular.
War, Exile, Justice, and Everyday Life, 1936–1946
Edited by Sandra Ott

Millions of Europeans experienced war, occupation, and exile in the turbulent years between the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and the end of World War II in 1946. The contributors to this volume focus on the lives of ordinary people ensnared in world events beyond their control. Well-known landmark events like the bombing of Gernika, the mass exile following the Spanish Civil War, France's sudden defeat in 1940 and its subsequent occupation by Germany, the French resistance, and the Allied invasion of France and liberation come to light through the people involved in them: A Tyrolean German soldier trying to make a life and ignore (and explain away) the difficult realities of his regime, Eastern European, mainly Jewish, resisters in occupied Paris, Basque nationalist priests persecuted by Franco regime, children exiled from their homes living in French and other refugee camps, even American newspaper readers. These are the unlikely protagonists in history that is usually seen from the top down, but here is explored from the bottom up.