Chronicler: Mary Erramouspe Cook

3/27/86

Tape 1, Track 1

0:49 - 4:39 Father & Mother's family history.

5:14 - 9:34 How parents met, how dad ended up in Surprise Valley.

9:38 - 13:29 Father's Military duty & what they did after the war. What life was like on the ranch, wine making. Her siblings.

14:41 - 18:44 Father one of the first Basques in area, the story of how mother got to Nevada. Mother's family.

22:14 - 27:14 Parent's education, importance of education. Her own education, what education was available as a child. How got to school, correspondence of parents with family.

Tape 1, Track 2

0:00 - 5:00 Basques leaving area around late 1930s - early 1940s to go to cities. Had to hire other ethnicities to herd sheep (Peruvians, Mexicans). Basque identity, pride & politics. Father's role in local politics.

Tape 2, Track 1

0:00 - 5:06 Religious aspects of Basques in N. California. Priest came from Truckee by horse and buggy, took 3 months because stopped at every house along way to celebrate mass & hear confessions.

13:49 - 18:39 Where did the Basques come from, difference between Spanish and French Basques.

18:41 - 23:18 Did the sheepherders stay or go? Most Basques did not stay in town, who owned land and didn't. Effect of the Taylor Grazing Act, the exodus of many families vs. staying in town.

23:41 - 28:08 Other nationalities that lived in Surprise Valley, other economies that existed. Native Americans were also there, no animosity between them & Basques. Social activities of the men (cards). When Basque population began decline (1950s - 1960s) in the valley.

Tape 2, Track 2

0:00 - The decline of the Basque population in area, mostly dependent on sheep industry. Mostly, those who left became gardeners in the bay area